Europe

Europe

 

50 Countries

10,2 Million km²

appr. 740 Million Inhabitants

Biggest cities: Moscow, London, Istanbul


Albania

Albania

1925-1928 Republic of Albania

1928-1946 Kigdom of Albania

1946-1991 Socialist Peoples Republic of Albania

since 1991 Republic of Albania

Andorra

Andorra

Sovereign Principality Andorra since 1993

Talschaft Andorra

Valls d`Andorra

Les Vallées d`Andorre

Arctic Territories

Arctic Territories

The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of North America, Asia and Europe.

Belgium

Belgium

since 1830 Kingdom of Belgium

Albert I. 1909-1934

Leopold III. 1934-1951

Baudouin 1951-1993

Albert II. 1993-2013

Philippe since 2013

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina

1963 - 1992 Socialistic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

since 1992 Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina

 

Bulgaria

Bulgaria

1879-1908 Bulgarian principality

1908-1946 Kingdom of Bulgaria

1946-1990 Peoples Republic of Bulgaria

since 1990 Republic of Bulgaria

 

Denmark

Denmark

Kingdom of Denmark

Christian IX. 1863-1906

Frederik VIII. 1906-1912

Christian X. 1912-1947

Frederik IX. 1947-1972

Margrethe II. since 1972

 

 

 

 

Estonia

Estonia

1561-1721 swedish

1721-1918 russian

1918-1940 Republic of Estonia

1940-1991 Sovjet Union

since 1991 Estonia

 

Faeroe Islands

Faeroe Islands

820-900 Colonization by the Vikings

1380-1940 Kingdom of Denmark

1940-1945 British occupation

since 1945 Kingdom of Denmark

Finland

Finland

until 1917 grand duchy (Nikolaus II. 1894-1917)

since 1917 independent state

since 1918 Republic of Finland 

France

France

1848-1852 2nd Republic

1852-1870 2nd Empire

1870-1947 3rd Republic

1947-1958 4th Republic

since 1958 5th Republic

 

Gibraltar

Gibraltar

until 1704 Kingdom of Spain

1704 - 1830 English occupation

1830 - 1969 British Crown Colony

since 1969 Dependent Territory Gibraltar

Greece

Greece

1830-1973 Kingdom of Greece (last King: Konstantin I. 1920-1922)

since 1973 Republic of Greece

 

Great Britain

Great Britain

since 1927 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Queen Elizabeth II. since 1952

 

Guernsey

Guernsey

- since 1066 crown dependency of the British Crown

- Elizabeth II., Duchess of Normandy

- St. Peter Port (Capital)

Ireland

Ireland

appr. 1174 - 1922 Part of England

1922 - 1937 Irish free state

since 1937 Independent State of Ireland

Iceland

Iceland

1380-1918 Part of Danmark

1918-1944 Kingdom of Iceland (King Christian X.)

since 1944 Republic of Iceland

Italy

Italy

until 1946 Kingdom of Italy (last King: Vittorio Emanuele III.)

since 1946 Republic of Italy

 

Jersey

Jersey

until 1066 Estates of the Duke of Normandy

since 1066 Domain of the British Crown

Islands: Jersey, Boeuftins, Dironilles, Ecrehos, Minquiers

Croatia

Croatia

1941-1945 Independent State of Croatia

1945-1990 Socialistic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

since 1990 Republic of Croatia

Latvia

Latvia

until 1918 Russia

1918-1940 Democratic Republic of Latvia

1940-1990 Soviet-Union

since 1991 Republic of Latvia

Lithuania

Lithuania

until 1918 Russia

1918-1940 Republic of Lithuania

1940-1990 Soviet-Union

since 1991 Republic of Lithuania

Luxembourg

Luxembourg

since 1815 grand duchy

1890-1905 Adolph

1905-1912 Wilhelm IV.

1912-1919 Maria Adelheid

1919-1964 Charlotte

1964-2000 Jean

seit 2000 Henri

Malta

Malta

until 1798 Knights of St. John

1798-1800 french

1800-1964 british crown colony

since 1974 Republic of Malta

 

Isle of Man

Isle of Man

1829 at the british crown

Chief of state: Lord of Mann Elisabeth II.

Inhabitants: appr. 84.500

Surface area: 572 km²

Macedonia

Macedonia

1912-1945 Part of Serbia

1945-1991 Autonomous Republic of Yugoslavia 

since 1991 Republic of Macedonia

Moldova

Moldova

until 1919 Empire of Russia

1919-1991 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

since 1991 Republic of Moldova

Monaco

Monaco

Principauté de Monaco

1889-1922 Albert I.

1922-1949 Louis II.

1949-2005 Rainier III.

since 2005 Albert II.

Montenegro

Montenegro

1852-1910 Principality Montenegro

1910-1918 Kingdom of Montenegro

since 2006 Republic of Montenegro

Netherlands

Netherlands

Kingdom of the Netherlands

1890 - 1948 Wilhelmina

1948 - 1980 Juliana

1980 - 2013 Beatrix

since 2013 Willem Alexander

 

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland

until 1920 Part of Ireland

1919-1921 Irish War of Independence

since 1921 Part of the United Kingdom, independent of Great Britain

Norway

Norway

Kingdom of Norway

1872-1905 Oscar II.

1905-1957 Haakon VII.

1957-1991 Olav V.

since 1991 Harald V.

 

Austria

Austria

1918-1934 Republic of Austria

1934-1938 Federal State of Austria

1938-1945 German Empire

since 1945 Republic of Austria

 

Poland

Poland

- 1918 Kingdom of Poland

1918-1939 Republic of Poland

1939-1944 German occupation

1952-1989 Peoples Rep. of Poland

1989- Republic of Poland

 

Portugal

Portugal

Kingdom of Portugal until 1910

Carlos I. 1889-1908

Manuel II. 1908-1910

Republic of Portugal since 1910

Rumania

Rumania

1881-1947 Kingdom of Rumania

1948-1965 Peoples Republic of Rumania

1965-1989 Socialist Republic of Rumania

since 1989 Republic of Rumania

 

Russia

Russia

until 1917 Empire of Russia

1917-1991 Sovietunion

since 1991 Russian Federation (Republic of Russia)

 

 

 

 

 

San Marino

San Marino

since 301 Republic of San Marino

Grotto of eremite St. Marinus Dalmata

Currency union with Italy

Scotland

Scotland

543-1707 Kingdom of Scotland (Alba)

since 1707 Part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Sweden

Sweden

Kingdom of Sweden

Oscar II. 1872-1907

Gustaf V. 1907-1950

Gustaf VI. Adolf 1950-1973

Carl XVI. Gustaf since 1973

 

Switzerland

Switzerland

since 1848 Confederation of Switzerland, the origins are the Peace Association of the cantons Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden.

 

Serbia/Yugoslavia

Serbia/Yugoslavia

1963 - 1992 Socialistic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

1992 - 2000 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

since 2000 Republic of Serbia

 

 

 

Slovakia

Slovakia

1939-1945 Republic of Slovakia

1945-1993 Czechoslovakia

since 1993 Republic of Slovakia

Currency: 1 Euro = 100 Cent

Slovenia

Slovenia

since 1991 Republic of Slovenia

in former times: Austria / Kingdom of Serbians, Croatians and Slovenes / Yugoslavia

Spain

Spain

until 1931 Kingdom of Spain

1931-1947 Republic of Spain

since 1947 Kingdom of Spain

Currency: 1 Euro = 100 Cent

Tatarstan

Tatarstan

1438-1552 Khanate Kasan

1552-1917 Empire of Russia

1917-1990 Soviet Union

seit 1990 Federations Republic of Tartastan

Transnistria

Transnistria

1917-1990 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

since 1990 Transdniester Moldavian Republic

Czechia

Czechia

1960-1990 Socialist Republic of Czech and Slovakia

1990-1992 Czech and Slovakian Federative Republic

since 1993 Czech Republik

 

Turkey

Turkey

1299 - 1922 Othman Empire

since 1923 Republic of Turkey

Currency: 1 Turkish Lira = 100 Kurus

Ukraine

Ukraine

1941-1943 Reich Commissariat Ukraine

1943-1991 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

since 1991 Republic of Ukraine

Hungary

Hungary

1920-1946 Kingdom of Hungary

1946-1949 Republic of Hungary

1949-1989 Peoples Republic of Hungary

since 1989 Republic of Hungary

 

Vatican City

Vatican City

Vatican City State since 1929

Johannes Paul I. 1978

Johannes Paul II. 1978-2005

Benedikt XVI. 2005-2013

Franziskus since 2013

Byelorussia

Byelorussia

1919-1991 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

since 1991 Republic of Byelorussia (Respublika Bielarus)

Cyprus

Cyprus

1571-1878 Ottoman Empire

1878-1914 English Colony

1914-1960 British Crown Colony

since 1960 Republic of Cyprus